What are the five main components of a wind turbine?

Time:2023-02-23   Visits:1141

The design and manufacturing of wind turbines is a complex project. Due to its huge size, its different components need to be transported separately to the wind farm and assembled on site. Each component has its own characteristics and requires special tools for transportation or installation.

We will analyze the characteristics of each part of the fan and what specialized equipment is required for transportation, installation, and maintenance.

What are the main components of a wind turbine?

A wind turbine consists of five main components and many secondary components. The main components are the foundation, tower, rotor and hub (including three blades), engine room, and generator.

All of these components require specific installation equipment for wind turbines.

1. Foundation of wind turbines

The foundation of onshore wind turbines is located on the ground; It is invisible because it is covered by soil. It is a large and heavy concrete structural block that must be able to support the entire wind turbine and the forces acting on the fan.

In an offshore fan, its foundation is invisible underwater. For offshore fans far from land, their foundation is in a floating state, but there is sufficient mass to support and maintain the weight of the fan and the various forces applied to it.

2. Fan tower drum

Most modern fan towers are made of circular steel pipes. One experience with fan towers is that their height is the same as the diameter of the circle formed by the rotation of the fan blades. Generally speaking, the higher the fan, the easier it is to catch high-speed wind. Because the farther we are from the ground, the stronger the wind (the wind speed varies at different heights).

3. Rotors and hubs of wind turbines

The rotor is the rotating component of a turbine; It consists of three blades and a central part connecting the blades, namely the hub.

Although three blades are the most common, fans are not necessarily three blades. But a three blade rotor has the best efficiency advantage. Leaves not sturdy; They are hollow and made of lightweight and sturdy composite materials. The trend is to make them larger (to obtain greater power), lighter and stronger. For aerodynamics, the shape of leaves is like wings (like the wings of an airplane). Furthermore, they are not flat and have a twisted design between their roots and tips. Leaves can rotate 90 degrees around their axis. This motion is called pitching.

The function of the hub is to maintain the blades and allow them to rotate with the rest of the fan body.

4. Fan compartment

The cabin contains all the components that need to be installed on top of the fan.

The fan compartment is a complex electromechanical system with a considerable number of components that can work accurately and normally. The important fan components are the generator and spindle, which transmit the energy collected from the wind to the generator through a gearbox. The gearbox is another important component of wind turbines.

Due to the fact that the fan must operate with the wind and adjust its direction according to the wind direction, its rotor must be able to rotate relative to the tower. This rotation is called yaw.

5. Fan generator

A generator is a component that converts the mechanical energy of the rotor (obtained from the wind) into electrical energy. The structure of the generator is the same as that of the motor.

Although there are various types of wind turbines, they can be divided into two categories

① Horizontal axis wind turbine, the rotation axis of the wind wheel and the wind